But in his footnote 43 pp. J-Curve Magee seems to have been the first to do careful theoretical analysis of this phenomenon of the trade balance first worsening before it improves after a devaluation.
It is now often referred to as the "Lerner condition", although it has been mentioned by Marshall and formulated with even greater precision later by Mrs. On page appears the following: Taussig also distinguished net and gross barter terms of trade, the latter allowing for total amounts paid even when they differ from prices due to trade imbalances that might arise from, say, reparation payments.
Byin Bhagwati et al. In a, he credited Hicks with going beyond Kaldor by explicitly using it as a criterion for an increase in welfare, and then, throughout the last half of the paper, called it the Kaldor-Hicks criterion.
Fragmentation As used to mean a splitting up of production processes, the term fragmentation was first introduced by Jones and Kierzkowskiwho start their analysis by noting p. Marshall himself said he should share credit with others, but he names only Auspitz and Lieben"in which use is made of diagrams similar to mine, which they had constructed independently.
Stylized fact The source if this expression would appear to be very simple, as I found numerous authors who cited Kaldor as introducing it. Several subsequent authors also used the term, perhaps following Edgeworth or perhaps coming to it on their own. Without citing any prior authors at all, so I cannot tell whether he thought this was new, he used data on trade and tariffs to calculate the benefits to the UK of moving to free trade with Europe: Empirical tests[ edit ] Empirical studies that are designed to test the relationship between market concentration and prices are collectively known as price-concentration studies; see Weiss Predating all of this explicit application to bilateral trade between countries, however, the term "gravity model" was used in other social science contexts, and models of this form were used, under other names, in other applications.
This condition is usually expressed in terms of elasticities of demand for imports and of demand for exports. This condition is usually expressed in terms of elasticities of demand for imports and of demand for exports.
Searching the literature around this time, I find Polak citing the condition, but only as "the well-known formula. As for the Hirschman index itself and its use for quantifying concentration of trade, it is difficult to search for it without the Herfindahl, but I was able to find a few sources that use it.
But he was certainly not the first to use the term, as he cited a passage from the Wall Street Journal describing "what economists call a J-curve" in reference especially to the aftermath of the devaluation of the British pound in It is true that protective duties at first increase the price of manufactured goods; but it is just as true, and moreover acknowledged by the prevailing economical school, that in the course of time, by the nation being enabled to build up a completely developed manufacturing power of its own, those goods are produced more cheaply at home than the price at which they can be imported from foreign parts.
Bierwagin footnote 2, p. The Relation between Evenness and Diversity. This did not specify the form of that protection, and went on to say that "the aid they sought from the government was designed to be only temporary.
However, Appendix J with only very few exceptions does not use "terms of trade," but rather alternates between "rate of interchange" and "exchange index.
For example, Ngp.
The superiority of one country over another in a branch of production often arises only from having begun it sooner. One of those, the Navigation and Commerce Treaty between England and France, included the following passage: Alternative definition[ edit ] In economicsmarket concentration is a criterion that can be used to rank order various distributions of firms ' shares of the total production alternatively, total capacity or total reserves in a market.
Of this they said: I have calculated both measures in a spreadsheet and can confirm that they do indeed yield different values and that the Hirschman index does indeed fall as the number of goods rises, while the Gini coefficient does not.
The term "price-specie flow mechanism" entered the literature with Angellwho dealt with it in detail. A3: Accurate, Adaptable, and Accessible Error Metrics for Predictive Models: abbyyR: Access to Abbyy Optical Character Recognition (OCR) API: abc: Tools for.
A numerical approach to understanding economic structures has been the basis for the development of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and Gini coefficient.
The concentration and industry structure are easily conceivable from a combination of these two indexes. G/G/1 queue; G-network; G-test; Galbraith plot; Gallagher Index; Galton–Watson process; Galton's problem; Gambler's fallacy; Gambler's ruin; Gambling and information theory.
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濫用理論（原則的禁止に対するもの。ヨ―ロッパ諸国の独占禁止法は市場支配的企業の濫用行為を規制している）. Higher the inequality, higher the number over 0. If only one person has all the income, a score of (or ) indicates total inequality.
Market share inequality and other distributional inequalities can be measured this way. The Italian statistician Corrado Gini () is its inventor.
Known also as Gini coefficient or index of concentration.Herfindahl hirschman index gini coefficient